Josiah Magama Tongogara

Zanla Commander Tongogara

One is the ZANLA chief General Josiah Magama Tongogara who died just before the country attained its independence (his father worked at Ian Smith's father's farm near Shurugwi where he grew up and the two used to play together as children before politics separated them to fight on opposite sides, however, there was no bad blood between them when they met at Lancaster House for talks that led to Zimbabwe's independence.

                                      Tongogara Mapping the road to freedom for Zimbabwe

We used to throw stones at each other in Salisbury. We cannot pass this on to our kids. We are going away and we must leave a stable Zimbabwe to the new generation . . Let’s leave a really united Zimbabwe. I don’t want to see my kids throwing stones over these minor divisions. I think they will laugh at me because I did.'
These are the words of Josiah Magama Tongogara,

"One of Tongo’s geniuses lay in his belief in the youth, he was inspired by the youth. He had tremendous faith in the youth, he believed that the salvation of the country lay in mobilising the youth to fight the liberation struggle. He demonstrated in Mozambique that the lowest of the cadres was as important as the leader. He was a politician, a visionary, a military genius — and a youth."

Listen to Josiah Tongogara's vision for a new Zimbabwe(from 6:10)

Josiah Magama Tongogara (1938 - December 26, 1979) was a commander of the ZANLA guerrilla army in Rhodesia. He attended the Lancaster House conference that led to Zimbabwe's independence and the end of white minority rule. Many expected him to be the first president of Zimbabwe, with Robert Mugabe, head of Zanla's political wing, ZANU, as prime minister.

Tongogara and his parents lived on the farm owned by the parents of Ian Smith, Rhodesia's last prime minister.

At the Lancaster House Agreement in 1979, Tongogara was a crucial "moderating" force, according to Lord Carrington, the then British Foreign Secretary, who chaired the talks. By then Tongogara openly favored unity between ZANU and Joshua Nkomo's ZAPU. "Robert Mugabe referred to unity with Zapu as sharing the spoils with those who had not shouldered the burden of fighting," says Mhanda. As Lancaster House concluded, Tongogara returned to Mozambique, where Zanla was based, to inform his soldiers of the ceasefire. Margaret Dongo was among them. At fifteen, she had crossed into Mozambique to join the guerrillas, adopting the chimurenga (liberation war) name of Tichaona Muhondo ("we shall see/resolve this in the battle").

Six days after the Lancaster House Agreement was signed Robert Mugabe, on the Voice of Zimbabwe radio station, conveyed "an extremely sad message" to "all the fighting people of Zimbabwe": the forty one year old Tongogara was dead, killed in a car accident in Mozambique on December 26, 1979.

Josiah Tungamirai, the ZANLA High Command's political commissar relates that on the night of the fatality, he and Tongogara had been travelling with others in two vehicles from Maputo to Chimoio. Tungamirai said he was in the front vehicle. It was dark and the roads were bad. Tungamirai's car passed a military vehicle that had been carelessly abandoned, with no warning signs at the side of the road. After that, he could no longer see the headlights of the following car in his rear view mirror. Eventually he turned back, and, as he had feared, they found Tongogara's car had struck the abandoned vehicle. Tongogara was sitting in the front passenger seat. Tungamirai told me that he had struggled to lift Tongogara out of the wrecked car. He said that as he was doing so, Tongogara heaved a huge sigh and died in his arms.

Margaret Dongo was one of the last people to see him alive. "We were eighteen girls who were having a function and he came to say a few words to bless the occasion."

ZANU released an undertaker's statement saying his injuries were consistent with a road accident, but no autopsy results or pictures have been released(the undertaker who gave the report was indeed Mr K.J Stokesand not Mr R Silke).

Theories on death

A CIA intelligence briefing of 28 December 1979 said Tongogara was a potential political rival to Mugabe because of his .. ambition, popularity and decisive style. On the same day, the US embassy in Zambia reported: Almost no one in Lusaka accepts Mugabe's assurance that Tongogara died accidentally. When the ambassador told the Soviet ambassador the news, the surprised Soviet immediately charged 'inside job'.[2]

Ian Smith also insisted in his memoirs that Tongogara's "own people" killed him, and that he had disclosed at Lancaster House that Tongogara was under threat. "I made a point of discussing his death with our police commissioner and head of special branch, and both assured me that Tongogara had been assassinated," Smith wrote.[3]

A former Detective in the Law and Order Section of the now defunct BSA Police ( now Zimbabwe Republic Police ) saw photographs of Tongogara's body. There were three wounds, consistent with gun shot wounds, to his upper torso. The undertaker's statement (described above) was not a formal autopsy report and as such was dismissed by all but the senior politburo of ZANU.

In spite of all these rumours, Mr. R. Silke, the pathologist for Mashfords Funeral Home in Zimbabwe, confirmed, in a television documentary in 1982 called "Tongo", that this theory of gunshot wounds on Tongogara's body was false as he personally inspected the body. He confirmed that the injuries he found were consistent with road accident trauma.

Another theory is that he was killed by the Rhodesian SAS.

Tribute to Tongogara by Chiwoniso Maraire and Andy Brown