Patrick Chakaipa Zimbabwe's first black archbishop 100 Greatest Zimbabweans

Roman Catholics in Zimbabwe will remember Archbishop Patrick Chakaipa, who died at St Anne's Hospital in Harare on April 8 after a long battle with cancer, with a mixture of love and sorrow.

The first black Archbishop of Rhodesia, Chakaipa was a close friend of Robert Mugabe. This controversial relationship was a source of considerable embarrassment to the church both at home and abroad. The archbishop invited criticism when he refused to allow the Catholic Church's commissioners for justice and peace to publish a devastating report, which revealed the full horror of the North Korean trained Zimbabwe National Army's atrocities in Matabeleland between 1982 and 1987. The government now admits to 10,000 civilian deaths. Some Catholics say many more died, possibly five times that figure. The report was eventually released, but never with the blessing of the Catholic hierarchy, which, basically, did not want to embarrass or anger Mugabe. The archbishop was also roundly condemned for the fact that, years later in 1996, he lobbied the Pope so that his friend Mugabe could marry a State House security worker called Grace Marufu who was at the time of her notorious affair with the president married with children to a Zimbabwean Air Force officer.

Patrick Chakaipa's warm relationship with Robert Mugabe was ideal for the latter, but Catholics both in Zimbabwe and Britain say it has cost the Church dearly. Born in Mhondoro in Rhodesia in June 1932, he spent almost 38 years of his life as a priest and just over 30 of them as a bishop, later archbishop of a country once called Rhodesia but now generally referred to as ''Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe''. From peasant stock, Patrick Chakaipa was ordained as a priest in 1965. Seven years later he was appointed auxiliary bishop for the diocese of Salisbury, and in 1976 was enthroned as the first black Archbishop of Rhodesia following the resignation that year of Francis William Markall SJ. For historic reasons, Catholics have been the loudest and most influential voice of Christianity in Rhodesia/ Zimbabwe.

When Sir Alec Douglas Home and Rhodesian leader Ian Smith worked out a plan to restore legality to Rhodesia in 1971, Patrick Chakaipa was one of the many local dignitaries who said ''no'' because it gave too much power to a small group of wealthy Europeans who hoped to perpetuate racism in Africa. At synods and Christian gatherings, the voice of Patrick Chakaipa was loud and clear. ''The Church,'' he said in Rome in 1994, ''can only promote justice if it makes all efforts to avoid injustice within the Church itself.'' When he died on April 8, hundreds of thousands of Catholics walked slowly around his coffin, which was later taken to the citadel of Catholicism in Zimbabwe, the mission at Chishawasha. At the start of the twentieth century, many Catholic blacks regarded the Catholic Church as a lighthouse of hope.

Many of the country's future leaders - including the Jesuit-educated Robert Mugabe - sat still and silent as they took in the words of Christ, only to throw them out of windows at the nearest ruling party headquarters when they came to power. Those who know Zimbabwe well say that it is no coincidence that the strongest Easter Pastoral Letter from the Zimbabwe Catholic Bishops' Conference since independence was issued to priests only a few days after the archbishop's death. In it, the Catholic Church in Zimbabwe accused Robert Mugabe of having ''failed to provide leadership that enables the creation of an environment that enhances truth, justice, love, and freedom''. With its release, President Mugabe has finally lost the vital support of the Zimbabwe Roman Catholic Church. The pastoral letter condemned what it called the ''frightening corruption, lawlessness, and abuse of power of the government''. It also expressed outrage at the regime's practice of demanding that people in famine relief queues produce a ruling-party card before they are allowed to receive food. ''People's lives are at stake and the nation cannot afford to entertain the politicisation of food while people are starving.''

Mugabe's wish underlines, if needs be, once again the closeness of the two men. If his wish becomes the Church's command it will embarrass Catholics who are now attempting to undo years of Church-State cosiness in order to identify fully with the spiritual and material needs of millions of starving people.

Archbishop Patrick Chakaipa; born June 25, 1932, died April 8, 2003.

Tribute by fellow Priest to Patrick Chakaipa

I remember in 1980 when I was much more enthusiastic about Zanu PF,

being disappointed that when the new Prime Minister asked to see the

archbishop, Chakaipa took a fortnight to reply. That disappointed some of us

then, but maybe he knew something we didn't know at that stage.

Later, he did seem to warm up to the party just as many of us were

cooling towards it, but, for example, his agreement to preside at the

wedding of Robert Mugabe and Grace Marufu did not prove he was a Zanu PF


Their behaviour before their marriage may have left something to be

desired, but I can understand, even if I disagreed at the time and still

disagree, with the archbishop's view that the man was a Catholic and his

asking for a church wedding showed that he wanted to put things right so a

good priest (and we all knew Chakaipa was that) could not refuse him the

blessing and help of the church.

It is simply untrue to say he was the strongest supporter of the

"Third Chimurenga" among the bishops. When it began, he was already a sick

man and, if we criticised him, it was for not speaking against the

violence - something he may have been incapable of by then. At least he did

not defend the way the land-grab was carried out. Some of his colleagues did

go as far as to approve Mugabe's theft of the 2002 presidential election by

attending and blessing his inauguration, but not Chakaipa.

There is another aspect to the "national hero" business that the

archbishop might have recognised and not approved.

Do you remember when that MP declared Mugabe the Son of God? I am sure

that Mugabe does not want to be God. He'd rather be Pope, because that

carries more obvious power. If we, or his own thugs, offend God, we have

rather a long time to wait before we face judgment for that, but the Pope

has power over his own followers here and now and a lot of people who are

not his followers admit he has tremendous influence over them.

That is the power Mugabe wants, not the power to send us to Hell when

we die. He would rather control us here and now.

And, when you think about it, declaring national heroes is one way

that he tries to claim the sort of power the Pope has. The nearest parallel

I can think of is the way the Pope declares saints in a canonisation

ceremony. This is a way of saying that the dead person led a life that shows

they can be safely venerated and imitated by the faithful, and isn't that

very similar to what is being said when someone is declared a national hero?

They are saying: "This man may have been a greedy, self-serving thug, but he

was a loyal member of the party, and we want you all to be like that, even

if it doesn't reward you so well. To prove your loyalty, you may venerate

him by naming streets after him."

That is a kind of power over our minds that many politicians would

love to exercise, and the gentleman in State House revels in it.

If the dead really did turn in their graves, there would be permanent

earth tremors at Heroes' Acre as men like Rekayi Tangwena, Herbert Chitepo

and Guy Clutton-Brock protested at the kind of company they are forced to

keep there. If anyone had the impertinence to bury Chakaipa there, he also

would turn in his grave. He was a faithful enough follower of the Pope to

recognise when power-hungry politicians were using a ritual that he believed

only the Pope could use, and using it to boost their own power.

Archbishop Chakaipa may have been quiet when people expected him to

speak out against the evils that have been unleashed on our land in recent

years, but what could he have done when he was dying of cancer? It doesn't

make him a lackey of the party or of the mad professor or of the man who

used to wear a grass hat.

He was also a very humble man, who would not be fooled by cheap

honours. National hero? He'd have wanted none of that

May he rest in peace.
Magari Mandebvu is a Catholic priest who writes on political and

social issues.

Saki Mufindikwa Zimbabwe's Greatest Graphic Designer

Born: 1955, in Harare, Zimbabwe
Resides: Harare, Zimbabwe

Saki Mafundikwa is a maverick visionary who left a successful design career in New York to return to his native Zimbabwe and open that country’s first school of graphic design and new media. Mafundikwa is the author of Afrikan Alphabets, a comprehensive review of African writing systems. He has participated in exhibitions and workshops around the world, contributed to a variety of publications and lectured about the globalization of design and the African aesthetic. In going home and opening his school, Mafundikwa’s ambition is nothing less than to jump-start an African renaissance.

Mafundikwa was moved to draw from an early age. Using a stick, he illustrated on every surface he could find—on the ground, in the sand, even tattooing his thighs and arms. He loved drawing letters in particular. Though he had not yet heard of printing and thought typeset words were done by hand, his aim as a child was to make letterforms as good as those he saw in books.

His father, a schoolteacher, recognized Mafundikwa’s constant scribbling as a talent to be nurtured. He enlisted his son to design classroom instruction materials, and soon other teachers were making use of Mafundikwa’s artistic gifts, too.

Mafundikwa left Zimbabwe as a young man in the late 1970s because his country was at war. As some of his peers were being drafted into the colonial army and others were joining the guerrilla force fighting for liberation, he summoned the courage to follow a different path. He journeyed to Botswana and declared himself a refugee. There, due to his high school achievements, he was able to secure a scholarship to study in America. Mafundikwa says, “Sometimes you have to leave home to discover yourself. If I hadn’t left home, I would never have become a graphic designer, and I would never have discovered African alphabets.”

It was at Indiana University that he finally recognized his true calling. Though he’d chosen a fine arts and telecommunications double major, Mafundikwa often volunteered to design flyers for university parties. Another student noticed his work and suggested that he really belonged in graphic design.

He was introduced to two professors in the design department. Since he had no portfolio to present, they queried him about his life and family. They were intrigued when he mentioned his mother was good at embroidery and crocheting, and that he drew patterns for her. Mafundikwa says, “These people were smart enough to know that this was design. [In Zimbabwe] we didn’t know what it was, didn’t have a word for it, but it was design.” He was invited to study with them, and eventually changed his major.

Mafundikwa went on to receive an MFA in graphic design from Yale. A flame was lit during his application interview with professor Alvin Eisenman. Eisenman was aware that certain African countries had writing systems, like the hieroglyphics of Egypt, so he asked Mafundikwa if there was a Zimbabwean alphabet. The idea that, in addition to the oral traditions of the continent, African knowledge had been passed on in unique written form centuries ago was a revelation to Mafundikwa. He became passionately devoted to the subject, finally taking it on as his thesis project.
New York was Mafundikwa’s next stop. There he worked at various jobs as an art director for advertising and publishing (which he enjoyed immensely). He designed and art directed for various imprints at Random House. In addition to designing books, he took on a number of freelance jobs creating promotional materials for popular recording artists. And he took part in the media boom as part of the team developing the Fodor’s website. During this period Mafundikwa also taught a class at Cooper Union called Experimental Typography. The topic and his instruction elicited inspired work from his students.

At the end of 1997, Mafundikwa decided he could be more useful in Zimbabwe than in New York. He left a comfortable life and returned to his native land to open the Zimbabwe Institute of Vigital Arts, or ZIVA. “Vigital,” a word of his own creation, refers to visual arts taught using digital tools. Ziva means “knowledge” in Mafundikwa’s native Shona language.

Through the school, Mafundikwa tries to illuminate graphic arts as a viable career path for Zimbabwe’s young people. He says, “It was the most natural thing for me to come home and start a school of design. Because I figured, my god, how many hundreds of young people in Zimbabwe would never know there is a field called graphic design. It was the right thing for me to do, because I felt so fortunate that I was able to figure it out.”

At the outset, Mafundikwa funded the school by cashing in his 401(k) from Random House. He continues to pour all of his freelance design earnings into ZIVA because the political climate in Zimbabwe has made it impossible for him to garner other financial support.

Zimbabwe currently suffers from an economic, political and social crisis, which can be attributed to its government. Scores of supporters of the opposition have been arrested and displaced. In April 2008, The New York Times published the indelible image of a woman with a child strapped to her back crawling under a barbed-wire border fence to escape. But while others flee, Mafundikwa remains committed to his country and his cause. He says, “We all live on this thread of hope that change is going to come. That’s why I’m still here. Those that are not eternal optimists like me—they left a long time ago. I believe in this country.”

In 2004, Mafundikwa published Afrikan Alphabets, a result of 20 years of research and a testament to Africa’s intellectual wealth. It is his hope that Africa can imprint itself on the canon of graphic design. Mafundikwa says, “The dream is for something to come out of Africa that is of Africa.” He knows it will be a monumental task, but he is confident that his book and his school are steps in the right direction.

by Camille Lowry

Saki is the founder of Ziva, Zimbabwe's first and only Graphic Design and New Media training facility. We offer a two-year diploma in graphic design, design history, advertising design, web design, motion graphics, interactive design, 3D modeling and animation, digital video, photography

The Cooper Union School of Art – Visiting professor, Graphic Design

Shona Studio – (own studio) Web design, book design and brochures

Random House – Designer, book jackets, designer –

The Cooper Union School of Art – Adjunct Prof., Graphic Design ‘94 – ‘96

Freelance:Guggenheim Museum, St. Martin’s Press, Warner Brothers,

Scholastic Inc., Lockhart and Pettus Inc., Island Records

Oct ‘08 ICOGRADA MULTIVERSO Conference, Torino, Italy

May ‘08 Jury member ZGRAF 10, Zagreb, Croatia

Oct ‘07 Design Educator’s Forum of Southern Afrika, CT, RSA

Jun ’06 Congreso de Tipografia, Valencia, Spain

Feb ’06 Tasmeem Doha Design Conference, Qatar

May 05 Typo2005, Berlin, Germany

Aug ’04 ISEA 2004, Helsinki, Finland

Aug ’04 Madison Public Library, Madison, WI, USA

Jul ’04 Typecon, San Francisco, CA, USA

Nov ’03 University of Iowa, USA

Nov ’02 Yale School of Art, New Haven, CT, USA

April ’02 Cooper Union, New York City

April ’02 Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA, USA

May ’02 Indiana University School of Art, Bloomington, IN, USA

Feb ’02 Workshop, Intuit Lab, Paris, France

Oct ’01 California College of Arts & Crafts, San Francisco, CA

Sept ’01 ICOGRADA, Johannesburg, South Afrika

Dec ’00 Paper, International Symposium on Electronic Arts, France

Nov ’00 Graphic Artists from Around the World, Echirolles, France

Aug ’00 With Erik Spiekermann, San Francisco, CA

Jan ’00 Universidad ICESI, Cali, Colombia, South America

April ’99 UNESCO Workshop in Graphic Design and Textiles, Uganda

May ’96 London College of Printing, Visiting Artist Series

Sept ’95 AIGA 6th National Conference, Seattle, WA

Apr ’95 Indiana University School of Art, Bloomington, IN

Sep ’94 Organization of Black Designers, 1st Conference, Chicago, IL

Etapes Graphiques magazine, Paris, France, August 2009

Novum “Afrika Issue”, Munich, Germany, July 2009

AREA 2: Phidon, UK, Jan 2008

Author “Afrikan Alphabets”: Mark Batty Publisher, May 2004

“Harare’s Unsung Type Heroes” eye magazine UK, vol 15, Spring 2006

SocialDesignZine, Andrea Rauch & Gianni Sinni, Lcdedizioni Rome, 2005

Radical Type Design, Teal Triggs, Collins Design UK, 2005

World Graphic Design, Geoffrey Caban, Merrell UK, April 2004

Typography in Afrika (essay): Culture Types, Graphis Books 2003

Communication Arts, Design Annual, 2002

dwell magazine, San Francisco, CA, June 2001

Etapes Graphiques magazine, #72, Paris, France, April 2001

U&lc, NYC, USA, Fall 1999

“Shungu: The Resilience of a People” Official Selection IDFA 2009, Up for Audience Award, Amsterdam, Nov 2009

Yale University School of Art, MFA Graphic Design 1985

Indiana University, BA (Double major) Telecommunications & Fine Arts 1983

Chaz Maviyane-Davies Zimbabwe's best Graphic Designer

Chaz Maviyane-Davies, a Zimbabwe national is Presently Professor of Design at the Massachusetts College of Art in Boston.
For more than two decades my work has taken on issues of consumerism, health, nutrition, social responsibility, the environment and human rights.
Credentials include an MA in Graphic Design (with distinction) from the Central School of Art and Design in London, and an Advanced Diploma in Postgraduate Film-making from the Central St. Martins School of Art and Design London.
Also spent a year in Japan studying three-dimensional design and ten months in Malaysia working on various world-reaching design projects for the International Organization of Consumers Unions and JUST World Trust.

Poster to fight against Domestic Violence.

Design work experience in London includes time with Fulcrum (Design Consultants), Newell and Sorrell Design Ltd., as well as a stint in the Department of Graphic Design of BBC Television.
From 1983 until 2000 I was the principal of The Maviyane-Project, a design studio in Harare. As a result of the social, humane and confrontational nature of my work, I felt compelled to temporarily leave Zimbabwe because of the adverse political climate there.

                         Poster emphasizing where racism takes root

Films written, directed and produced by me include ‘After the Wax — personal view of nationality and identity’ (1991.17 min,16 mm in colour). This work has been screened at several film festivals and television channels around the world where it has won several awards and accolades.
As well as being published in numerous International magazines and newspapers, my design work has also been acknowledged in Who’s Who in Graphic Design, First Choice: Leading International Designers, Rewriting the Rules of Graphic Design, Digital Portfolios Unzipped, Graphic Agitation 1 & 2, Graphic Design Timeline — A Century of Design Milestones, World Graphic Design, Celebrating Posters, Area: Showcasing 100 of the world`s most innovative emerging graphic designers, History of Graphic Design, Design for Dissent, International Poster Excellence, Anatomy of Design, Designer Portraits, Lovely Language and was included in the list ID Forty, ID magazine’s annual honours list profiling leading-edge designers from around the world. New York 1998.

Poster on HIV/AIDS awareness.

In 2009 I was conferred with an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from the University of Massachusetts Lowell. Amongst other awards I am also the first recipient of the Anthon Beeke International design award, Amsterdam and recognised by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston with an award for outstanding innovator in his commitment to the struggle to transform society and create a just future as well as by Simmons College, Boston with an award for courage and integrity in using art to stimulate activism for social change. In November 2003 I gave the prestigious Dwiggins lecture sponsored by the Society of Printers and the Boston Public Library.

CD Cover for a musician whose totem is an elephant.

Besides extensive individual and group exhibitions worldwide, my design work has been represented in most of the largest international graphic, invitational and poster exhibitions from 1980 to the present time, while I have also been invited to judge several international exhibitions and competitions.
My work is included in several international permanent collections in various galleries.
I am presently writing a book about my work entitled “Creative Defiance”.

Dignity and Identity T shirt.

EXHIBITIONSA list of the past 3 years.
2010: Solo exhibition: ‘Creative Defiance’, Rose Lehrman Art Gallery,
HACC, Harrisburg, USA
2010: Selections, Bakalar Gallery, Massachusetts College of Art and
Design, Boston USA
2010: Solo exhibition: ‘Dissent’, Spencer Presentation Gallery,
Endicott College, Beverly, USA
2009: Voices in Freedom, Museo Franz Mayer in Mexico City, Mexico
2009: Migration, Athens International Poster Exhibition, Greece
2009: Visual Voices, Center Gallery, Fordham University Lincoln Center,
New York, USA
2009: Agitadores de Conciencia, Canary Islands, Spain
2009: Stop World Hunger, CdD Design Centre of Rosario,
Buenos Aires, Argentina
2009: Shigeo Fukuda Memorial Exhibition, Poster Art Gallery,
Helsinki, Finland
2009: World of Posters, The Danish Poster Museum, Aarhus, Denmark
2009: 17th International Lahti Poster Biennial, Finland
2009: Masterpieces, Ljubljana National Gallery, Ljubljana, Slovenia
2009: 3rd International Graphic Biennial of the Islamic World,
Tehran, Iran
2009: 9th International Poster Triennial in Toyama. Japan
2009: Solo exhibition: ‘Rights’, UMass Lowell. USA
2009: Ekoplakát / 40 posters from 11th Trienal Ekoplagát ilina 2008.
Czech Republic
2009: Politics, Protest, Poster, Tufts University, Boston, USA
2008: Speak Out, 516 Arts, Albuquerque, USA
2008: 10th International Biennial of the Poster. Mexico
2008: Many Rivers to Cross, Oval House, London, UK
2008: Golden Bee 8 Biennale, Moscow. Russia
2008: 11th Trienal Ekoplagát ilina. Slovak Republic
2008: 7th Ogaki International Invitational Poster Exhibition. Japan
2008: 21st Poster Biennale, Warsaw. Poland
2008: Thoughts on Democracy, Wolfsonian Institute, Miami, USA
2008: Reflections In Exile: Five Contemporary African Artists Respond
To Social Injustice, South Shore Art Center, Cohasset & Museum of the National Center of Afro-American Artists, Boston, USA
2008: Rights for Africa Day, Limerick City Hall, Ireland
2008: D’Ailleurs..., Espace Arlaud, Lausanne, Switzerland
2008: Ex-pression of Zimbabwe, Université d’Avignon, France
2007: Solo exhibition: ‘Rights’, Black Cultural Center,
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA
2007: Eye Opener, Museum for Communication, Den Haag, Netherlands
2007: Lovely Language: Words Divide, Images Unite,
Centraal Museum Utrecht, Netherlands
2007: 10th International Triennial of the Political Poster, Mons, Belgium
2007: A Reflexive Journey: The Immigrant Experience in Art,
Stonehill College, Easton, USA
2007: AIDStop, CdD Design Centre of Rosario, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2007: Posters for Cultural Diversity, National Museum of Fine Arts of
Havana, Cuba
2007: Designer Portraits, D4 Business Center, Luzern, Switzerland
2007: Universal Language, Museum of Fine Arts, Novosibirsk, Russia
2007: NewAfrica, Rundetaarn, Copenhagen, Denmark
(will go on world tour)
2007: 16th International Lahti Poster Biennial, Finland
2007: The 9th Tehran International Poster Biennial, Iran
2007: Savannah College of Art & Design, USA. 2007
2007: Jury exhibition: 2nd International Poster Competition
‘Anti AIDS - Ukraine’
2007: Repressed II, Gallery 5, Richmond, USA
2007: Associates Fanfare, St Botolph Club, Boston. USA
2007: Graphic Messages from GGG & DDD 1986–2006,
Ginza Graphic Gallery, Tokyo, Japan
Check out Chaz Maviyane-Davies work at

Dr. Robson Mafoti 100 Greatest Zimbabweans

A true friend helped Dr Robson Mafoti plunge, unbelievable into the right career path he had always yearned for when he was still growing up.

In an absorbing and thoughtful interview with the chemical industrial scientist, Dr Mafoti was taken aback and recalled his friend, Patrick Mutasa, as a true friend who had a profound impact on his career.

"I had this burning desire to go to school. A friend of mine, Patrick Mutasa went to Bulawayo main post office and saw a sign written: 'If you need help call the Good Samaritan.'

"He called that number and told the 'Good Samaritan' that he wanted to go to school but he had no money. The 'Good Samaritan' told him to call Mr Fred Moorehouse at the United College of Education," Dr Mafoti said.

"This guy (Mutasa) called him and was told that there was the Budiriro Trust Scholarship which he could apply."
After work, Mutasa later told Dr Mafoti about the scholarship and urged him to apply for it.
This was in 1971 when Dr Mafoti was working at Springmaster as a production clerk.
He had just finished his O'levels at Mzilikazi High School in 1969 but had failed to get a place to study for his A'levels at Fletcher High School in Gweru despite the fact that he had passed very well.

So he decided to look for a job in 1970 at Springmaster in Bulawayo.
"I did very well at that job. I was earning $6,45 a week. That was enough to buy some few items and not adequate to feed myself," he said.

"And so, when my friend told me about the scholarship, I didn't know that this would have an amazing effect on my life. He told me to take my O'level certificate to Mr Moorehouse so that I could qualify for the interviews for the scholarship," Dr Mafoti recalls.

The competition for the scholarship was stiff with 100 candidates in Harare and another 100 in Bulawayo competing for just two scholarships.

A panel of eight whites interviewed the candidates in Bulawayo.
"We went for the interviews but unfortunately my friend, Mutasa never made it. It was myself and Canaan Dhlodhlo who made it to the second round after a rigorous screening exercise," Dr Mafoti says.

"We were later told that we had got the scholarship to go and study in Swaziland."
This was the beginning of his long and winding journey to the world of chemical and industrial science.
Listening to him speaking about his life makes you feel like you are being taken into the womb of knowledge.
You are kept chasing after the words which capture his vast knowledge and experience in the field of research and development.

Whenever he spoke, I found myself hanging on each word wondering with great anticipation what would come next.
Dr Mafoti was born in Wedza on 11 June 1949 and first attended school at the Methodist Church-run Chematendere Primary School from 1956 to 1961.

The Mafoti home was on the foothill of the Wedza mountain. In 1962, he dropped out of school because of lack of funding.

And in the year that followed he went to stay with his uncle in Bulawayo who later helped him enrol at Gampo Primary School at Matshobane. He did his primary education here until he finished his standard 6.

In 1966, Dr Mafoti enrolled at Mzilikazi High School which was opened in 1965 to serve blacks during the colonial era.
He finished his O'levels in 1969.
"When I was growing up in Wedza I didn't know that I would be a scientist. They say that I had a rare talent of moulding clay oxen and carving rocks of oxen pulling a plough," the veteran chemical researcher says. "I suppose the environment around me helped to shape and influence my career path."

He says he had this burning desire inside to excel in education and surpass some of the well-known and successful people and families at the time.

"I used to say: 'I will not stop at standard 6. I want to reach standard 18," he says laughing. "This is what motivated me most. In the environment I grew up I saw with my own eyes what school could do to our neighbour's children.

"Perhaps my biggest motivation was staying close to Sijabuliso Biyang (now a managing director of Sea Freight in Harare). He was the big brother I was always looking up to. I was always telling myself that: 'I want to be like this man. He was my role model. Sometimes role models influence our lives," he says.

Mentors at school also helped Dr Mafoti to have an interest in the sciences. "At high school, I was good in science. I had a natural inclination for sciences. Science and mathematics became my favourite subjects. I just loved the practical aspect of science. This was quite fascinating to me.

"I just could not write like historians. I was too scientific in my approach. I didn't have the gift for the arts," he says.

He says he got a lot of inspiration from Mr Godfrey Motsisi, a South African science teacher who taught him at school in Bulawayo before he later became a principal at Fletcher High in the early 1970s.

"Motsisi was a good scientist. He was inspirational in many ways. He led a good life and together with other white teachers at Mzilikazi I was taught to love sciences," Dr Mafoti says.

The road to Swaziland via Lorenco Maques, now Maputo was a tortuous one particularly for young blacks like Dr Mafoti and Dhlodhlo who could easily be mistaken for Frelimo cadres seeking the overthrow of the Portuguese colonial regime in Mozambique.

The two left the country at the end of 1971 and had to get British passport in Mozambique from the British consular general based in Maputo.

At that time, it was difficult to enter Swaziland with a Rhodesian passport. They got their British passports in Maputo and they proceeded with their journey to Swaziland. Little did they know that they were being trailed by Portuguese security agents who thought they were Frelimo cadres.

"Just before the Lomahatsha Border Post, a security agent told us we had reached our destination. He then led us to a police station. We were shown a three-quarter bed with blood stains all over it, a whip with iron spikes at the end," Dr Mafoti recounted their ordeal at the hands of the security agents.

"They accused us that we were Frelimo agents. One of them said: 'Lets beat them up.' Before we could be given this 'nice treatment', the immigration officer at the border called the British consular general to verify our travel documents.

"We were cleared just before they could torture us. On that day we slept on the back of a car. It was cold and we were afraid," he says.

Upon arrival in Swaziland, he enrolled at Waterford Kamhlaba School, a multiracial school were he studied for his A'levels from 1972 to 1973.

He stayed at the house where a Danish family ran a charitable organisation to assist afflicted children from apartheid South Africa and Rhodesia.

During that time, he met renowned eye surgeon Dr Solomon Guramatunhu and many other young Zimbabweans who later succeeded in life.

After completing his A'levels, Dr Mafoti got a place at the University of Sussex in England but failed to secure a scholarship to study there.

"So I had to join the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland (UBLS) near Roma town in Lesotho in 1974 after getting a scholarship from a Geneva-based organisation. This is the same university where Dr Bernard Chidzero also went through," he says.

At Roma, Dr Mafoti majored in chemistry and biology. He graduated in 1977 and taught briefly at Amavheni Secondary School in Kwekwe.

Conditions of work for blacks were so bad that he was forced either to leave for Mozambique to join the armed struggle or to go and work in Lesotho.

"At Roma we were very active as Zanu supporters. I met the likes of Dr Aleck Mashingaidze (former Central Intelligence Organisation director), Dr Stan Mudenge (now Higher and Tertiary Education minister) who was the leader of the group and many other Zimbabweans," he says.

In 1977 he taught briefly in Lesotho and later left to study for MSc in the United States after getting a scholarship from the African American Institute.

Dr Mafoti attained a MSc in analytical chemistry from Texas Southern University (1980), a MSc and PhD both in organic chemistry from Rice University in Houston, Texas (1985).

From the academic, he later managed to break into the industrial and practical side of science. In 1985 he joined the Bayer Corporation (USA) researcher centre. Bayer was originally a German firm which was taken over by the Americans after the Second World War.

But the Germans later bought the firm again renaming it Miles which they later decided to change to Bayer Corporation.
Dr Mafoti gained vast experience and received training in various management programmes.
"At that time I was the only black research scientist. I was just one black token to signify – a symbol of racial integration in America. I said no and I felt the only way I can get accepted is for me to prove myself.

"A German scientist felt sorry for me. I was like a lost sheep. I had to do something drastic very quickly," he says.
He befriended technicians and learnt a lot about polymers. Dr Mafoti designed the fascia of cars used for making grills using material that could resist movement when heat was applied and conversely when it was subjected to very low temperatures.

He made a breakthrough and designed fascia material which was later used successfully by leading American motor companies such as MG, Chrysler and Ford. This became his first patent and one of his most prized and enduring innovations.

"They could not believe I had done it. Because I was black, it was subjected to several rigorous tests. I managed to retain 90 percent of the properties of the material I had designed," he says. "This earned me a lot of respect and recognition. My work expanded from this point onwards."

After working for five years at Bayer, he was voted the Most Proliferous Inventor. "I had 13 patents which were issued in one year at Bayer in 1990," Dr Mafoti says. "Invention is by serendipity. You cannot dream about it, no."

His inventions are in the field paints, plastics, decorative surfaces, sealants and adhesives. Dr Mafoti left Bayer Corporation and joined Wilson-Art International to expand his industrial knowledge in 1995.
"At Bayer, while they respected my technical ability they never gave me the chance to enhance my managerial skills because I was black," he says.

In Austin, USA, he oversaw the growth of Wilson-Art International from an annual turnover of US$500 million a year to US$1,2 billion a year by 1999 through research, product development and appropriate marketing strategies.

He said training and the identification of key drivers helped turn the fortunes of this company. Dr Mafoti invented laminate flooring materials which were scratch resistant, not prone to moisture attack and less slippery. In the first year when the flooring materials were commercialised, Wilson-Art sales hit US$250 million. The owners sold the company and invested the millions of dollars they had raked in on the stock exchange.

Dr Mafoti moved to Dallas in 2000 and joined Schneer Morehead Inc as a technical director of research and development for sealants and adhesives.

The death of his mother in January 2002 forced him to return home. "My mother died in 2002 and in the course of that, it was at the height of the land reforms. There was a revolution at home. Having spent 25 years in the US, I felt it was time to come back.

"I had missed the First and Second Chimurenga and I felt I had to join the Third Chimurenga," he says.
He saw an advert in the Sunday Mail looking for director general for Scientific Industrial Research and Development Centre (Sirdic) and he applied.

"I sent my CV to chairman Dr Gibson Mandishona. I felt there was no way I could get the job. I got a call from him in November 2002 to arrange for an interview. I was interviewed on January 17 2003 and I got the job," the chemical industrial scientist says.

He quit his job in the US and joined Sirdic on July 1 2003 taking over from Prof Christopher Chetsanga who had retired.
In addition to his personal achievements, Dr Mafoti's vision of corporate management, understanding of application and support of scientific research has led to the growth and maturation of Sirdic into a centre of excellence promoting the country's scientific and technological advancement.

One constant of Dr Mafoti's career has been his consistent call for Sirdic to connect industrial research and development to commercialisation. "Research for the sake of research is like milking a cow without feeding it. We have to train our people to say whatever they do in the lab it must be directly linked to application and the application should link with commercialisation," he says.

"I called that: 'from cradle to grave' –if you start it you have to finish it off by handing over to the end user."
After sourcing tile making machines from Cuba for US$100 000, the Sirtech commercial arm of Sirdic is now producing tiles with sales worth more than $200 million per month.

Tile factories have been opened in Harare, Bulawayo and Mutare and Dr Mafoti says the tile manufacturing project is expected to rake in about $2 billion and create jobs for more than 800 workers by the end of the year.

Sirtech runs four units –tile manufacturing, foundry which had just started, electronics which was producing Science Laboratory and Teaching Equipment for basic science teaching and the animal anti-biotic unit awaiting funding to buy equipment to ensure commercialisation veterinary products.

"We need US$1 million to buy fermentors to produce anti-biotics for animals," he says.
The isolation of Zimbabwe by western countries, he says, is forcing Zimbabweans to think outside the box and develop innovative ways of surviving.

"You are seeing more innovations because we have to survive. This is good, all developed countries once passed through such a phase and they had to find ways of surviving," Dr Mafoti says. "Funding that comes with no strings attached is most welcome. Lines of credit are much better than conditional aid. We should be able to borrow, develop and pay back. This is the type of help we need and not donor money."

A country develops with lines of credit and not with aid that comes with conditionalities, he says. Dr Mafoti says brain drain was disastrous in the short-term but good in the long run as skilled personnel return home to share their knowledge and experience once they decide to return to their country of origin.

"Until the economy improves, we must create a congenial environmental that is going to allow our children to dream," he says.

His public service activities have ramified into all kinds of government run institutions, boards and committees both local and international.

The list of awards and honours Dr Mafoti has received for both his personal achievements and contributions to science and to the field of research and development is impressive. Mafoti is a member of various professional societies including the Zimbabwe Academy of Sciences and the American Chemical Society.

He remains committed to turning Sirdic into one of the premier institutions in Africa and the world which acts as an engine for innovation in the country.

Mafoti is married to Ann Ntsoaki and the couple have two children – son Fadzanayi (29) a mechanical engineer in Oregon and daughter Muchaneta (19) who is studying law and accounting at a university in the UK.

He has another daughter Simphiwe who works for a South African government ministry. "The teaching of science needs to be skewed towards application. We need to start bringing the practical side of our education system. Science is the future. Chemistry is the basis of everything. Zimbabwe needs a university to teach polymer science," says Dr Mafoti.

The chemical industrial scientists maintains a persistent steady and positive approach to the challenges facing the country.

There is no doubt that his great enthusiam for and great support of science education and deep concern for Africans to drive the research agenda will consolidate Sirdic's thrust to find solutions to Zimbabwe's pressing problems.

Words from prominent African scientist Phillip Emeagwali capture the feeling that science can liberate Africa despite the enormous challenges the continent faces: "The greatest challenge in your life is to look deep within yourself, to see the greatness that is inside you and those around you.

"I once believed my supercomputer discoveries was more important than the journey that got me there. I now understand the journey to discovery is more important than the discovery itself.

"I learned that no matter how you often fall down, or how hard you fall down, what is most important is that rise up and continue until you reach your goal."

Tendai Biti MDC 100 Greatest Zimbabweans

Tendai Laxton Biti (born 6 August 1966) is a Zimbabwean politician. He is the Secretary-General of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC-Tsvangirai) political party and a member of Parliament for Harare East; currently he is the Minister of Finance of Zimbabwe.

Biti was born in Dzivarasekwa, Harare. From 1980 to 1985 he attended Goromonzi High School, where he was appointed deputy head boy in 1985. He enrolled in the University of Zimbabwe law school as a freshman in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, as Secretary General of the Student Union, Biti led student protests against government censorship in academia. After school, he joined the Law firm Honey and Blackenberg, where he became the youngest partner by the age of 26.

Political career
In 1999 he helped found the MDC. He was elected Member of Parliament for the Harare East constituency in 2000. During the Fifth Parliament he served as a member of the Parliament Portfolio Committee on Lands, Agriculture, Water Development, Rural Resources and Resettlement and that on Defence and Home Affairs. In March 2005 he retained the constituency. He serves in the Portfolio Committee on Budget, Finance and Economic Development and is currently the MDC's Secretary General. In his legal career Biti has handled labour and human rights litigation representing large trade unions such as the Post and Telecommunications Trade Union.

He was arrested in 2007 with many others, including MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai, after a prayer rally in the Harare township of Highfield.

On June 16, 2007, Biti and Welshman Ncube met with Justice Minister Patrick Chinamasa and Labor Minister Nicholas Goche, in Pretoria, South Africa. South African President Thabo Mbeki, appointed by the Southern African Development Community, presided over the negotiations which sought to end economic sanctions on Zimbabwe.[1]

2008 elections
Biti was re-elected to the House of Assembly from Harare East in the March 2008 parliamentary election. According to official results, he received 8,377 votes against 2,587 for the ZANU-PF candidate.[2] In the period following the election, he stayed outside of Zimbabwe (mainly in South Africa), along with Tsvangirai, amidst a post-electoral situation that the MDC alleges is marked by serious violence against MDC supporters.

Biti returned to Zimbabwe on June 12, 2008 and was immediately arrested at the airport in Harare. Before his departure from Johannesburg, Biti said that he had already learned that he would be arrested, but maintained that his only crime was "fighting for democracy" and said that it was necessary for him to return to participate in the MDC's struggle.[4] Following Biti's arrest, police spokesman Wayne Bvudzijena said that he would be charged with treason, based on an MDC document about changing the government.[5] This document, which was called "The Transition Strategy" and was said to have been written by Biti on March 25,[6] included purported plans to rig the election in favor of the MDC.[6][7] Bvudzijena said that Biti would additionally be charged with making false statements "prejudicial to the state" due to his announcement of election results prior to their release by the Electoral Commission.[5][6] United States Ambassador James McGee expressed deep concern on behalf of the US government, saying that the document in question was an unobjectionable statement of the MDC's plans and goals; according to McGee, another, more extreme version of the document existed, but it was forged.[5] Biti's lawyer also claimed that the material in question was forged.[8]

On June 13, Biti's lawyers said that they had not been allowed to meet with him, and they filed an urgent application with the High Court on the same day. The MDC said that it was "deeply worried" about Biti's welfare and that it had sent a team to police stations across Harare, hoping to determine where he was being held.[9] He appeared in court on June 14.[10]

Biti's home was searched by the police on June 16, although the police did not take anything out of the home.[7][11] His lawyer, Lewis Uriri, said that Biti had been interrogated for a full 24 hours after his arrest; Uriri also said that he would seek an order from the High Court to release Biti on the grounds that he had been held without charge for more than the allowed 48-hour period.[7]

Biti again appeared in court on June 18; however, this hearing was postponed to the next day because the power failed, meaning that the hearing could not be recorded.[12] He was charged on June 19.[6][8] He faced four charges: "treason, communicating falsehoods prejudicial to the State, insulting President Mugabe and causing disaffection among the defence forces"..[6] Prosecutors argued against granting bail to Biti, noting that the charges against him were so serious that he could be executed. The defense submitted an application to have the charges thrown out, but on June 20 magistrate Mishrod Guvamombe dismissed this application, saying that he believed there was "reasonable suspicion that the accused committed the said offence". Biti's next court appearance was set for July 7, and Guvamombe ordered that he remain in custody until then.[8]

On June 26, Biti was granted bail at one trillion Zimbabwean dollars; he was also required to surrender his home's title deeds and to report to the police on a weekly basis.[13] Biti's lawyers later filed a petition asking for the return of his passport so that he could attend talks between the parties in South Africa, and as a result his passport was returned to him on July 9, enabling him to go. He led the MDC-Tsvangirai delegation to the talks, which began in Pretoria on July 10, although according to Tsvangirai the purpose of this was only to set the MDC-Tsvangirai's conditions for participating in the talks, not to actually participate in them.[14][15]

Uriri applied for the removal of Biti's remand on the grounds that a trial date should have been set and the police investigation should have been completed. On August 27, 2008, Chioniso Mutongi, a magistrate in Harare, rejected this request, saying that Biti had not been on remand long enough for its removal to be appropriate

Appointment to Government of National Unity
On 10 February 2009, MDC leader and Prime Minister-designate Morgan Tsvangirai announced the appointment of Biti as Finance Minister in the Government of National Unity. Though he has no known history in financial and economic matters, analysts suggest that Tsavingarai really had no other option considering Biti's position in the MDC. In addition, he is known to drive a hard bargain and could be the best person to deal with the Zanu-PF controlled public service. He was sworn in alongside other Ministers on February 13, 2009 in Harare.

(C) wikipedia

Champion Swimmer Charlene Wittstock 100 Greatest Zimbabweans

ZIMBABWE-BORN champion swimmer Charlene Wittstock is officially engaged to Prince Albert II of Monaco, long one of Europe's most eligible bachelors, it was announced on Wednesday.

A brief statement from the palace in the 52-year-old's tiny Mediterranean statelet confirmed the engagement, but did not put a date on the eventual wedding, which courtiers will be hoping might produce a legitimate heir.

Prince Albert is the son of deceased Prince Rainier III and the late Hollywood actress Grace Kelly and has ruled Monaco, where he is broadly well-liked by his 8,000 subjects, since succeeding his father in July 2005.

Wittstock, who was born in Bulawayo on January 25, 1978, but competed for South Africa in swimming, is 20 years Albert's junior and a school teacher.

She is also a former Commonwealth 100 metres backstroke champion who has appeared on the prince's arm at several society events in Monaco, a Riviera millionaire's playground.

She also competed for South Africa in the Olympics in Sydney 2000, and won three golds in the 2002 swimming World Cup.

Prince Albert is a fellow Olympian, having competed in five Olympic games as a member of his country's bobsleigh team.

Wittstock was first spotted with the prince in 2001 at an event in Monte Carlo and was subsequently his guest at high profile events such as the Formula 1 Grand Prix in the principality and the opening of the 2006 Winter Olympics.

Her profile rose further when she was picked for a swimwear photo shoot by Sports Illustrated, but she has complained in the South African press of media intrusion into her private life.

With a fortune estimated at some two billion euros (US$2.4 billion), Albert has been seen with a string of beautiful women over the years.

He has managed to keep his love-life largely out of the public view -- in contrast with his sisters Caroline and Stephanie whose stormy affairs have been a constant source of celebrity gossip.

Albert has fathered two children, a girl and a boy who were officially recognised after he had acceded to the throne, but neither can succeed him as Monaco's constitution requires its rulers to be born in wedlock.

The children are Jazmin Grace, 20, whose mother Tamara Rotolo is a former American waitress and Alexandre Coste, 6, from a French-Togolese former flight attendant, Nicole Coste.

Albert's failure to marry and have legitimate children had resulted in a 2002 change to Monaco's constitution, under which the 700-year-old Grimaldi dynasty can continue through the female line if he dies without an heir.

Monaco, a super-rich enclave on the Riviera coast entirely surrounded on its landward side by France, covers only 200 hectares (494 acres). It is home to 32,000 permanent residents, only 8,000 of them citizens.

Low tax rates, a luxury yachting marina and a famed casino have attracted many wealthy expatriates, and around 36,000 mainly-French non-residents arrive every day to work in its tourism and financial services businesses.

Albert rules as head of state, supported by a senior French civil servant and a government of four senior advisers.

Published On: Wednesday, June 23, 2010 9:50 PM GMT
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